ONLINE ISLAMOPHOBIA - Agenfor International



Understanding linguistic hubs to detect hate speech

X-Twitter, Facebook, Instagram are the most popular social media where hateful contents against Muslim people are widespread, increasing the overall hate climate (online and consequently offline).

The tenth OSINT Report drafted by Viviana Gullo at the end of the STAND-UP and TRUST EU-co-funded projects reveals interesting insights on the online Islamophobia within the European territory, through the analysis of the so-defined linguistic hubs.

To conduct the research and analysis, the team involved in the project relied both on freely available tools and on an AI-powered OSINT system. In accordance with the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), all available personal data have been anonymised and/or redacted.

Before reading this report, please be advised that its content may be perceived as offensive or disturbing for some readers. Slurs and hate speech content have not been censored for the report purposes.



Agenfor International Foundation is a not for profit network aiming to work in the over-lapping contexts of development, humanitarian crises and human rights. Our goal is to ensure Security through a better protection of human rights and  socio-political participation with a particular focus on minorities, prisoners and other vulnerable groups. We are active in the field of counter-radicalization with training courses and research activities addressing the needs of first-line practitioners from the public and private sectors all around Europe. We periodically plan proposals in the field of security, human rights and international cooperation to EU and other international funds with the support of an extended partnership that comprises all 28 EU countries, Switzerland and Turkey.



Viviana Gullo works as a Junior Project Manager and OSINT Analyst with Agenfor International Foundation. Previously she worked as an intern and research assistant for the Ludwig Boltzmann Institut für Menschenrechte of Vienna and as a volunteer in the framework of the European Solidarity Corps for the Point Information Jeunesse of Moulins-sur-l’Allier. She holds a Master’s in European Legal Studies and a Bachelor’s in International Relations, Development and Cooperation, both from the University of Turin. During her Master, she also cooperated with the Strategic Litigation: International Human Rights Legal Clinic and the Human Rights and Migration Law Clinic.